Kidney Stones in Men, your kidneys play an essential role in filtering waste and excess fluid from your bloodstream. However, certain conditions can lead to the formation of kidney stones, hard mineral deposits that develop inside your kidneys. Kidney stones can cause severe pain, nausea, and difficulty urinating. The good news is that by understanding the leading causes of kidney stones in men and making some lifestyle changes, you can take steps to help prevent them from forming in the first place.

Some of the most common causes of kidney stones in men include not drinking enough water, excess consumption of salty foods, obesity, and a diet high in protein, sugar, and processed carbs. Certain medical conditions like gout or inflammatory bowel disease can also increase your risk. By staying hydrated, eating a balanced diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and limiting excess salt, you can significantly lower your chances of developing kidney stones. If you have a medical condition linked to kidney stones, following your doctor’s recommended treatment plan is key to prevention and optimal health.

Dehydration and Low Urine Volume

As a man, one of the leading causes of kidney stones for you is dehydration and low urine volume. To prevent kidney stones from forming or recurring, it is critical that you:

Consume plenty of water and other non-caffeinated fluids daily. Most experts recommend aiming for 8-10 glasses of water per day to produce 2 to 2.5 liters of urine. The more you drink, the more you dilute the substances in your urine that lead to stones.

  • Increase your fluid intake, especially in hot weather or when exercising vigorously. Water is best, but you can also drink fruit infused water, herbal tea, and sugar-free beverages.

Monitor your urine output and color. Your urine should be pale yellow or clear. Darker, more concentrated urine is a sign you need to drink more fluids. Urinating small amounts of very dark urine is especially problematic.

  • See your doctor right away if your urine output decreases or you experience difficulty urinating. This can indicate a stone that has become lodged in your urinary tract.

Eat a balanced diet low in sodium and animal protein. Reduce consumption of foods high in calcium oxalate like spinach and rhubarb which can promote stone formation in some people.

  • Limit excess salt, red meat, and full-fat dairy which may increase calcium excretion in urine. Focus on plant-based, fiber-rich whole foods.

By staying properly hydrated, monitoring your urine, and following a balanced diet, you can take active steps to avoid developing kidney stones or lower your risk of them returning in the future. Your kidneys will thank you.

High Sodium Diet

A diet high in sodium is a major contributing factor to kidney stones in men. Sodium, commonly consumed as table salt, causes the kidneys to excrete more calcium into the urine. The excess calcium combines with other waste products to form stones.

To reduce your sodium intake and lower the risk of kidney stones:

  1. Cut back on processed and fast foods. These tend to be loaded with sodium. Instead, focus on fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  2. Avoid adding salt while cooking or at the table. Explore alternative seasonings like fresh or dried herbs, spices, citrus juices, and vinegars.
  3. Compare nutrition labels and choose low-sodium options. Aim for less than 2,300 mg per day. Many people should limit to 1,500 mg per day – check with your doctor.
  4. Rinse canned beans, soups, and vegetables to remove excess sodium. Canned goods tend to be high in salt. Rinsing can reduce the amount by up to 40%.

By making a few simple changes to reduce excess sodium in your diet, you can lower your risks of developing painful kidney stones. Drinking plenty of water also helps flush out salts and other stone-forming minerals from your kidneys and urinary tract. Making healthy lifestyle changes and staying hydrated are two of the best ways men can avoid kidney stones and keep these vital organs in good working order.

Obesity and Weight Issues

Excess Weight Putting Strain on the Kidneys

Carrying extra weight, especially around your midsection, increases your risk of developing kidney stones. When you are overweight or obese, your kidneys have to work harder to filter waste and fluids. The excess fat tissue also produces more waste products that can crystalize in your kidneys. Losing weight can help prevent kidney stones and may also help you pass any existing small stones.

Impacts of Weight Loss

Losing weight, even just 5 to 10 pounds, can have significant benefits for your kidney health and stone prevention. Weight loss will:

  • Reduce the burden on your kidneys to filter blood and fluids. Your kidneys won’t have to work as hard to do their job.
  • Decrease the amount of waste products in your urine that can form stones.
  • Make it easier to stay hydrated since your body won’t need as much fluid to function properly. Adequate hydration helps flush out the kidneys and ureters to prevent stone formation.
  • Increase urine volume, which helps move any small stones out of the kidneys and ureters. More urine means small stones are less likely to get stuck.

To lose weight in a sustainable way, focus on consuming fewer calories through portion control, choosing lean proteins and lots of vegetables, staying hydrated, and getting regular exercise. A balanced plan can help you lose 1 to 2 pounds per week. Talk to your doctor before starting any intensive diet or exercise program, especially if you have a medical condition.

The benefits of weight loss for kidney stone prevention and overall health make it worth the effort required to develop a customized weight management plan. While it may not be easy, taking it slow and making lifelong changes will significantly reduce your risk of dealing with painful kidney stones again in the future. Every pound you lose counts, so start today by making one small change and build from there. You’ve got this! Staying at a healthy weight will make a big difference for your kidneys and quality of life.

Gut Health and Kidney Stone Formation

Your gut health can have a significant impact on your kidney health and risk of developing kidney stones. Several factors related to your gastrointestinal system may contribute to kidney stone formation in men:

Digestive difficulties

  • Conditions like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can alter the gut environment and affect kidney stone risk. Stomach acid issues may lead to increased absorption of oxalate, a compound found in many foods that can bind with calcium to form calcium oxalate stones.
  • Slower digestion or gut motility gives oxalate more time to be absorbed in the intestines. Promoting regularity and gut mobility may help decrease excess oxalate in the urine, a key risk factor for certain types of kidney stones.

Gut bacteria imbalance

  • The bacteria in your gut, known as the gut microbiome, play an important role in health and disease. An overgrowth of certain bacteria like Oxalobacter formigenes can increase oxalate levels in the urine by breaking it down from food sources. On the other hand, some beneficial probiotic bacteria may help reduce kidney stone risk.
  • Maintaining a balanced gut flora through diet, probiotics, and limiting antibiotic use when possible may support optimal kidney health and stone prevention. Limiting excess sugar intake and eating more fiber-rich prebiotic foods are natural ways to cultivate a healthy gut microbiome.

Chronic inflammation

  • Prolonged inflammation in the gut from various causes can damage the lining of the intestines, known as the gut barrier. This makes it easier for compounds like oxalate to leak from the gut into the bloodstream, where they travel to the kidneys. Reducing inflammation through an anti-inflammatory diet, curbing stress, staying hydrated, and limiting alcohol intake may decrease kidney stone risk over the long run.

In summary, optimizing your digestive health and gut microbiome balance is an important step towards preventing kidney stones and keeping your kidneys functioning properly as you age. Making sustainable lifestyle changes and being proactive about gut health can have significant benefits for your urinary system and overall wellness as a man.

Genetics: Family History of Kidney Stones

Genetics play a role in the formation of kidney stones. If other members of your family have a history of kidney stones, your risk increases. Family history accounts for about half of the likelihood that an individual will form calcium-based stones.

Inherited Metabolic Conditions

Certain inherited metabolic conditions like hyperparathyroidism or cystinuria can increase the risk of kidney stones. Hyperparathyroidism causes excess calcium in the urine, while cystinuria leads to excess cystine in the urine. Both of these genetic conditions promote stone formation.

  • Hyperparathyroidism: Excess parathyroid hormone causes high calcium levels in the blood and urine. Calcium stones tend to form as a result.
  • Cystinuria: A defect in the kidneys’ ability to absorb cystine, an amino acid. Cystine stones can form, which are harder to treat.

Other Genetic Factors

Even without a diagnosed metabolic condition, family history indicates a higher likelihood of the necessary factors for calcium stone creation like:

  • Hypercalciuria: Excess calcium excretion in the urine. Calcium stones are more prone to form.
  • Low urine volume: Inadequate fluid intake and urine output. Higher concentrations of stone-forming minerals and salts.
  • Hypocitraturia: Low citrate levels in the urine. Citrate helps prevent stone formation, so low levels mean less protection.
  • Hyperuricosuria: High uric acid excretion in the urine. Uric acid stones may form.

To help determine your level of genetic risk, ask close family members about any history of kidney stones or related conditions. Be proactive by discussing screening and prevention options with your doctor, especially if multiple relatives have struggled with stones. While you cannot change your genes, lifestyle changes and medical management can help reduce your chances of developing this painful condition.


Now that you understand the major causes of kidney stones in men, you’re well-equipped to take action. Focus on drinking plenty of water to keep your urine diluted, aiming for 8-10 glasses per day. Increase your intake of citrus juices which contain citrates that help prevent stones from forming. Eat a balanced diet low in salt, animal protein, and sugars. Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly. Stop smoking, limit alcohol, and avoid excess vitamin C supplements.

While kidney stones can be excruciatingly painful, the good news is that by making lifestyle changes and understanding the risk factors, most men can prevent them from recurring or even forming in the first place. By staying vigilant and committed to these preventive strategies, you can avoid becoming another kidney stone statistic and keep your urinary health in check for the long run. The power to avoid this painful condition is in your hands. Now go forth and drink up!